Seizures - What You Need to Know
Seizures can be a scary thing to witness in our beloved pets. To help understand what is going on during a seizure, let’s start by talking about what is a seizure. Typically seizures are caused by an electrical disturbance in the brain. Our brains are comprised of neurons, which are tiny cells that run on electricity. If this electrical current gets disrupted it can cause the body to lose consciousness, control over movement and bowels resulting in a seziure.
There are different types of seizures. When most people think of seizures they think of a generalized (or grand mal seizure). This is where the pet will lose consciousness, have rapid arm and leg movements, and typically will urinate and defecate. This is the most serious form of a seizure. There are less extreme seizures call partial seizures. These can be mild and may go unnoticed. Some of these clinical signs include tremors, facial twitching, staring into space, light/fly biting, abnormal aggression or rage and even just brief episode of loss of consciousness.
Cluster seizures are more than one seizure within a 24 hour period. It is important to keep track of how many seizures your pet has. Status epilepticus is a seizure that lasts longer than 5 minutes. There can be serious even life threatening consequences for this type of seizure or recurrent seizures where your pet does not fully recover in between them. During these prolonged seizures, it is possible to have a lack of oxygen to the brain, extremely high body temperature and high blood pressure, any of these things can lead to permanent brain damage or death. Because these are life threatening emergencies, your pet should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.
Exotic Pet Cold Weather Tips
Despite the fact that your exotic pets are kept indoors, there are still some key concepts to keep in mind when winter and its inclement weather begins.
1. Taking your animal outside in the cold (i.e. a trip to the veterinarian) does not mean that the animal will “catch a cold”, yet one needs to take proper precautions. This includes sheltering your pet from the elements—wind, rain, and snow. It is smart to warm up your car before transporting your pet. Also, plan ahead if you intend to make any stops along the way and leave your pet in the car - treat your pet as you would a newborn infant.
2. Birds can be bathed indoors during the winter. If it is not too stressful an experience for the bird, it can be bathed frequently even in winter. The accepted method of bathing your bird (i.e. misting, spraying, showers, etc) should be done early in the day to allow full drying. Allow your bird to dry off in the bathroom before moving him or her back to a cooler room. Hairdryers can be used on a low setting only if they are safe and do not scare the bird.
3. Transport reptiles in a warmed container, such as a ventilated cooler, that is kept in the desired temperature zone for the animal. Reptiles rely on their environment to determine body temperature.
Is My Bird Vomiting or Regurgitating?
Though it may seem strange, regurgitation to a mate, person or toy is a normal part of bird reproductive and bonding behavior.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of the contents of the crop, a specialized part the esophagus. Regurgitation is usually a normal behavior. A bird that is regurgitating will make a head-bobbing and neck-stretching type of movement. Food will be brought up and deposited on the bird's toys or mate. Such controlled regurgitation usually does not result in staining of the feathers or the beak.
Vomiting, on the other hand, is the expulsion of the contents of the proventriculus, ventriculus (specialized parts of the stomach in birds), or intestine. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to differentiate between regurgitation and vomiting.
Vomiting usually includes a rapid flick of the head, which happens so fast it is often not seen by the owners. Tell-tale signs of vomiting in birds is the flicking of small pieces of ingested food around the cage. A very common complaint is that the feathers on the head are messy and stuck together. Food may become caked on the bird's head giving it a spiky, matted appearance.
Vomiting can occur along with regurgitation and is a serious clinical sign. If you suspect that this behavior is the result of illness and not behavioral causes, a veterinarian should examine your bird.
Encephalitozoonosis - Why Is My Rabbit’s Head Tilted?
Encephalitzoon cuniculi is a parasite most often associated with neurologic disease in pet rabbits. It can also have other manifestations including renal and ocular.
What are the signs?
The most common signs we see with affected rabbits include head tilt, rolling, and trouble walking (ataxia). The less common manifestations of the disease include a renal form of the disease where your rabbit may have an increase in thirst and/or incontinence, and an ocular form that is most commonly associated with cataracts.
How can my pet get it?
Most rabbits are infected from the urine of infected rabbits. This transmission can occur within six weeks of birth. It is also possible for an infected mother to infect her kits in utero.
It is important to know that E cuniculi is a zoonotic disease, meaning humans can be infected with this parasite. The people most commonly affected are immunocompromised. Be sure to wash your hands and clean around your rabbit well.
Intestinal Tract Problems in Kittens - What Pet Owners Can Do
As Veterinarians, we are more commonly presented with the cutest little kittens afflicted by diarrhea, though constipation can also be a significant problem. Most cat owners are more aware of when their young cat is having bouts of diarrhea because of the mess and smell. Constipation and severe constipation (obstipation) is not usually as obvious, but can be equally as problematic for kittens.
Because cats vary in when they go to the bathroom, determining if a cat is actually constipated can be challenging. Ideally most cats should go once per day, and though the color may vary with the diet, the consistency should be firm but soft.
Monitoring your kitten's bathroom activities, though perhaps the least enjoyable part of caring for your cat, is important to ensure that they are using the litter box regularly. Obstipation/constipation can lead to serious problems such as illness due to absorbing toxins from the colon, and even rectal prolapse.
What are the Causes?
Constipation may have many causes. As kittens transition from nursing to eating kitten food, they may become dehydrated or not have enough fiber in the diet. As young cats further develop, lack of exercise and gaining too much weight may be a contributing factor. Young cats also like chewing on everything and anything, which can contribute to constipation and may even progress to a blockage. So monitoring your kitten's behavior closely to make sure that he or she does not ingest foreign substances is also very important. There are several medical conditions including parasites that can play a role in the kitten becoming constipated.
What are the Signs?
Archived Pet Health Articles
- Dental Disease in Rabbits, Guinea Pigs, and Chinchillas
- Does Your Ferret Need a Dental Cleaning?
- Pet Dental Disease and Dental Homecare
Diseases, Viruses & Other Illnesses
- Adenoviruses in Reptiles
- Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) in Ferrets
- Encephalitozoon Cuniculi in Rabbits
- Fatty Liver Disease in Birds
- Feline Hyperthyroidism
- Lyme Disease in Dogs
- Tumors in Rats – Diagnosis (Part 1)
- Tumors in Rats – Treatment (Part 2)
- Tumors in Rats – Prevention (Part 3)
- Bringing Your Cat to the Veterinarian
- Guide to a Pet-Friendly Valentine's Day
- Managing Pet Care Costs
- Unwanted Egg Laying in Pet Birds - Causes & Prevention
Pet Health & Nutrition
- Gastrointestinal (GI) Stasis in Rabbits
- Pets and Seizures
- Reptile Nutrition for Herbivores
- Vomiting Cats
- Why Is My Turtle/Tortoise Slowing Down This Winter?
- Why Knowing Your Cat's 'Normal' Behavior Is Important
- What Is Canine Influenza (Dog Flu)?